Thursday, April 28, 2011

Mysterious Secret Sister Easter from New York-Part V

...when what to my wondering eyes should appear in my mailbox but a mysterious, giant 11"x17" white envelope!??! The return address said...New York. New York?

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Then this little typed note fell out...

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Secret Sister struck again! Thank you, Tambrie!

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Greek Masks: Their Elusive though Long History and How to Make Them

 When we started our study on Classical Greece, we knew we wanted to perform Euripedes' tragic play, "Trojan Women." We knew we wanted to make masks and try to make them as historically accurate as possible. With great enthusiasm we began our research...um, which didn't yield much. It took longer to find sources than it did to actually read the information they contained. I asked a friend. I looked for reputable web sites. I checked our local library. We went to the Rockefeller Library at Colonial Williamsburg, which turned up a historical document, but not much added information.

My last hope was a one-on-one interview with someone in the know, someone at Colonial Williamsburg. As soon as we arrived, I had my husband drop me off at Botetourt so I could quickly get to the Mary Stith house before the Playbooth Players closed "The Actor's Trunk." This is a come and go program where you can meet with the actors to ask about colonial theater. Being that theater has its origins in the Greek theater, and that the actors are always doing research, they would be my definitive source. I arrived 20 minutes before they closed, just enough time to ask a few questions. One of the actor's there is loaded with information on theater history and he's getting used to my asking him a lot of questions. It was so funny, when I told him that we wanted to put on a Greek play and were trying to research Greek masks so that we could make them correctly, he laughed and said he had just been reading about that. (See, I told you they are always researching!)

In the course of our conversation, he asked me what I knew. That didn't take long! We agreed that information is rather incomplete since most extant examples have decayed over the centuries because they were made of linen. He filled me in on different aspects from early theater, to later Greek theater, to Roman theater. By the way, many of the ancient masks you might think are Classically Greek are more than likely from a different era, even early Roman. Eventually the Romans quit using masks though they became part of masquerades. There is an entire informative history of masks. It's just that their origins are a bit blurry.

When I ran out of questions, I told him that I guessed we had some free parameters to explore and make final decisions on. We should just have fun with it. He agreed. He did give me an excellent tip though. He suggested that I use paper clay with the masks, because he was concerned that otherwise they'd get too heavy. I don't remember if I had told him or not, but I had originally purchased regular clay. In the end, I am so glad he recommended the paper clay. I had never heard of it before. It was a great product to use, yielded more than the same price of regular clay, was easy to sculpt and form with, and was super light. Incidentally we got a $10 box at AC Moore for free, because of points I had earned in the 2 years we have lived here.

Before starting the masks, we read through the play, "Trojan Women" to get a feel for it. The masks needed to be painted according to the personality of the characters in an exagerated way. This is a Classically Greek thing to do. We thought we could at least try to achieve this. After going through the play, we talked through each of the parts and discussed ideas of how the masks should look. What were the different personalities? What was the mood of each individual? What was their situation? All of that would factor in to the look. This was my only input into the final look of the masks. My son took it from there.

The next weekend the kids got to work on the masks. We needed 8. My son took 4 balloons and blew them up to head size. Then the kids paper-mached those with magazine strips and liquid starch. Although I had wanted these to be paper-mached in linen, I was busy using the linen to make the Alexander the Great linothorax armour. Linen is too expensive for me to buy more for scraps, especially when we'd have plenty of scraps after completing Al's armour. We had to start the masks before I was done with the linen for the armour.

Once dry, my son popped the balloons. Next he cut the shells in half and trimmed them down a bit so they weren't too much like a bowl. Then he cut out eyes and mouths. Next my son used the paper clay to form facial features like beards, eyebrows, noses, etc according to each of the unique personalities. By now I had the linen scrap pile of strips and considered paper-maching them at this point to get the "look". However we simply ran out of time. Besides, as my son said, it wouldn't have laid nicely over the formed elements from the paper clay facial features.

When that was done, my son worked on gluing his Alexander the Great linothorax armour while my daughter painted the faces. Based on my son's research, he decided that the women's faces should be white (because they were indoors all the time) and the men's should be dark tan (because they were outdoors all the time.) My son mixed the paint colors for the tan and then my daughter started painting. After that dried, my son painted facial expressions, etc on the masks.

I had talked to the actor about the proper manner to hold the masks, because we couldn't find anything definitive. Some masks tied on the face, some tied both to the front of the face and another to the back so the actors could simply turn around to change character or expression. After much thinking, we decided the best course for us would be to use handles. I had seen them used once held out a bit from the face and asked the actor about that, but again there is limited information. Soooooo, I made the executive decision we'd use handles and hold them out from our face a bit. My son took some paper clay and moushed it inside of the chin area on the back. After that dried, he super-glued dowels onto the dried paper clay.

I am quite impressed with my son's interpretation of the masks. And yes, I know there are 8 masks and 3 of us, but that's how thespians did theater in Classical Greece. Now we will never forget that!

To access the masks, we laid them out on the coffee table in the middle of our stage. We simply made it part of our display. We turned our display into part of the staging area for changing character.
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Without further ado, here are the masks in action during our Ancient Greek history presentation with my two favorites at the end.

Poseidon...
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Athene...
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Hecuba, Queen of Troy, which is now fallen, full of woe...
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Talthibius, Greek soldier who is actually kind and understanding to the captive Trojan Women...
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Cassandra, daughter of Hecuba who is thrilled that she will be given in marriage to King Agamemnon. "Mother, get a grip. I'm going to be married happily ever after!"
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Andromache, heartbroken that she has to give up her baby...
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I think these last two are my favorites. This is ANGRY Greek King Menelaus, husband of the beautiful Helen, who 10 years before ran away with a Trojan to live with him, starting the war...
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Helen acts perfectly innocent, "Who me? But darling, where have you been all this time? It's so good to see you again!"
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Now I can't bear to throw these masks away. I'd like to keep them awhile and display them somehow.

Monday, April 25, 2011

A Bell, Winston Churchill, and Colonial Williamsburg?


A bell, a simple instrument used across the ages to sound forth peals of rejoicing, or discord forwarning alarm. Manufactured in various sizes, some hang from bell towers while others are held in the hand. A town crier's bell was an expected timely herald for the citizenry, hoping that "all was well" yet mindful of the need to arm. One such bell rung forth from the halls of Parliament in England during the dark days of Hitler's foreboding advance through Europe. The British people looked to their leader, Winston Churchill, as the world listened in and ultimately took action.

Reputedly Winston Churchill was a man with quite a character, which he confirmed. "I am ready to meet my Maker. Whether my Maker is prepared for the ordeal of meeting me is another matter." Churchill is infamous for his words that resound through history. Was his key thought each day to say something people would remember 50 years from now? I rather doubt it. Some may dare to dream to influence history when peace reigns. Yet when trouble brews, the need for presence of mind, clarity of focus, and strength of determination cast forth resiliance and decision making on immediate pressing events. But then Churchill is reputed to have spoken these words at some point of his life..."History will be kind to me for I intend to write it."

Indeed he wrote history. I have several books of WWII with pictures of him meeting everyone from statesmen to commoners. His words were renown for speaking forth brilliance, exuding determination, and instilling hope. (Each is linked to the speech from which it came, with an audio link.)
You ask, What is our policy? I will say; “It is to wage war, by sea, land and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God can give us: to wage war against a monstrous tyranny, never surpassed in the dark lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy.” You ask, What is our aim? I can answer with one word: Victory—victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory however long and hard the road may be; for without victory there is no survival.-Winston Churchill, May 13, 1940

We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and the oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.-Winston Churchill, June 4, 1940

Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fall, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science.
Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth lasts for a thousand years, men will still say, “This was their finest hour!”-Winston Churchill, June 18, 1940


Then WWII ended, but more trouble was brewing. Winston Churchill coined the word picture we will forever link to Communism. "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent." - Winston Churchill, The Sinews of Peace” speech, Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri, March 5, 1946
From Winston Churchill's words, "The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you are likely to see." one can hear the harmonic ringing of another bell, that of Colonial Williamsburg's motto, coined by benefactor John D Rockefeller in the 1930's: "That the future may learn from the past." Coming together in 1955, Colonial Williamsburg awarded Churchill the Williamsburg Bell, made by artisans in the historic area "for his unexampled contribution in our time to the historic struggle of men to live, free and self-respecting, in a just society." You can view the award ceremony here...watch the video on this page! (I love Churchill's comments after receiving the bell!)

In memory of that reward, Colonial Williamsburg now honors on rare occasions individuals who represent the commitments of our founding fathers. This is the highest reward given by the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, which continues to be tangibly remembered in the form of a bell, now fittingly called the Winston Churchill Bell.

As I've recently read about this bell, I realized that I got to see those bells being made! When the kids and I were in the historic area at the end of March, we got to see a pouring for a bell at the James Geddy Foundry. The artisan told us that he had been commissioned by the foundation to pour a few bells. In fact, when I told the kids about this Winston Churchill story and reminded them of the bell pour, they got excited because they remembered that 2 bells were already finished and we got to see the third bell being poured that afternoon! Three individuals will each receive the Winston Churchill Bell Award at the end of April.

The anticipation to wait for the pour begged patience.

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Then he poured into the mold on the floor behind this stand so we couldn't see everything.

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Learning about the Winston Churchill Bell Award encouraged and amazed me in that it encapsulated some of my philosophy of teaching. Trying to impact my students with a sense of history, I've often told them to imagine wearing the shoes of the person we are studying. What would they do in that situation? Oftentimes my students consider that type of imagination unrealistic, since they aren't great like the person of history. I have to remind them that people of history were common people like them and you and me. They had to make difficult choices during turbulent times that we now study in history books. While making the decisions, did that person of history consider what students would read about him/her 10 or 100 or 1000 years from then in history books? Most likley not. They were more likely trying to make the best choices during an immediate crisis that we now study in history. As a result, their entire lives are now explored based upon any research we can find.

Then I have my students consider if they might be in a history book someday. How are they writing history today? I ask if they are keeping journals of significant events of the current events on the news and how that impacts them? What are their opinions of that? Are they saving letters and records of significance for future primary source documents? What's significant? Today CW looks at primary source inventory listings to see how to outfit buildings like the Charlton Coffeehouse. Archaeologists dig up scores of glass, pottery shards and even seeds to piece together the lives of people of history. Letters between people of the past give details for reenactments, interpreters, and even historical costume makers. The simplest detail to us today becomes a treasure to history hunters in the future. It may seem silly, but part of the impact I want to make, is that people 100 or 1000 years ago never considered this either. Yet we explore them today. I am merely trying to get my students to understand that the great people of the past were everyday people like them and you and me whose daily writings which might have seemed insignificant to them but comprise the primary source documentaion for our secondary research sources today. Whose to know if someone we know or you or I might impact history? Time will tell.

Significantly, the choices historic people made in the times they lived cause us to study them today and to choose either to stand alongside what we percieve as their greatness or confront them to debate their choices. What lessons can we learn from them to help us make hopefully wise choices in the seemingly insignificant details of today...which in turn might influence tomorrow in some way. One never knows.


"We make a living by what we get, but we make a life by what we give."-Winston Churchill

Sunday, April 17, 2011

Ancient Greece Rhetoric History Presentation

After many weeks of reading, thinking and writing, we finally had our history presentation on Greece, the Cradle of Democracy.


We began with a feast! Greek salads, stuffed grape leaves (hand made by me and the kids), pita chips with red pepper humuus, shrimp cocktail and mussels with garlic and wine, spinach/feta pastries, red pepper cheese pastries, and baklava.

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Then we performed Euripedes' play, Trojan Women (over 50 pages so not all of our lines were memorized). My kids made the masks.  Yes, we had all those parts!  Nine of them! Performed by three of us!  Crazy? Perhaps, but it's historically accurate!  The Greek thespians did this...why not us? Hecuba is the main character and remains on stage for the entire play. My daughter decided she'd rather do the other 4 female parts, which come on stage at separate times and have me do Hecuba. My son played the 3 male parts.  My husband isn't into acting, but we told him he had to be the chorus. This is a democracy after all! (Despite our fears that he'd rebel, he willingly took on the part while taking pictures.)

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Remember the Iliad? Our story picks up after the city of Troy has fallen.  The women are taken captive. What is their fate?  The queen of Troy, Hecuba, lies on the ground...

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as Poseiden speaks.

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Athene enters...

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Hecuba laments the loss of Troy, the loss of her husband and children. Her hair has been shorn due to mourning.  (Hence my shorter hair was in keeping with period accuracy, down to all the curls!)

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Talthibius, one of the Greek soldiers, enters. He tells Hecuba of the fate of the women.  For an enemy, he is rather compassionate.

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Hecuba discovers she'll be given over to that vile, slippery Odysseus.

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Her daughter, Cassandra enters, rejoicing that she will be the wife of the Greek king, Agamemnon. Hecuba despairs over her daughter's unfortunate marriage.

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Hecuba collapses, after Cassandra is taken away by the soldiers. She knows she'll never see her daughter again.

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Then Andromache enters with her son, Astyanax. Her husband, Hector, son of Hecuba, had been killed in battle.  Andromache tells her she watched Hecuba's other daughter, Polyxena, be sacrificed the dead Greek, Achilles. Andromache gave her burial rights and together she and Hecuba mourn the death of Polyxena. Andromache will go to the son of Achilles.

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Hecuba shares hopes that Astyanax will grow strong with her in the home of Achilles' son, and when full grown, will return to rebuild Troy.

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Talythibius breaks the news that the baby is to be killed, dropped from the walls of Troy onto the rocks below. (Did I tell you this is a tragedy?)

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Andromache kisses her son goodbye...

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Talthybias takes the child. However he cannot do the dastardly deed himself, so he hands the baby over to his men.

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Enter Menelaus.  Outraged.  He has come for his wife, Helen, that harlot who started the war.

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Enter Helen...who acts perfectly innocent.

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Irate Hecuba argues that Menelaus should kill Helen, telling how Helen ignored Hecuba's previous attempts to help her return to her husband. Meanwhile Helen embraces the knees, an ancient Greek custom to beg for mercy.

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A soldier (portrayed by my daughter) brings in the dead Astyanax on Hector's shield. (I told you this is Greek Tragedy, right? Where's the kleenex?)

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After the play, my husband asked a million questions, all of which we answered!  Then we took him to Athens, for a tour of Greek democracy.  This is Athens and the Agora, which is the open air, stucco roof covered marketplace supported by pillars. Can't you just imagine it?

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Imagine the food that is available for purchase (pantry).  Imagine the fountain where women collect water (kitchen sink).  We could definitely here the water from the fountain (the furies outside was unleashing a storm that caused a tornado to the west of us.) Here is yarn...(thanks to the Colonial Williamsburg sheep and weaver, except for the purple).

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My kids really got into the act with me, as we acted like Ancient Greeks with these props.

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I had made up cards telling the story of Greek democracy on these blue strips.  On the front I labeled them in ABC order, according to the Greek alphabet.

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They were placed around the house, each with a broken piece of pottery.

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Here is my cheat sheet!

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Alpha-We asked my husband if he thought democracy was a good thing. Oh dear, he was worried.  He remembered this conversation somewhere not having a positive spin.  We assured him (because we were in character) with gleeful grins, that we liked democracy! Didn't he?  Then he lit up, because he thought so too! The card told him to define democracy in his own words. He said, "rule of the people." We could work with that.  Why did he think it was good? (He doesn't like all of my Socratic questioning. In fact, I drive most people nuts with all of my questions, so I usually hold back. But for this, he needed to answer!)  After we pumped everything we could about democracy from him, we allowed him to follow the final directive on the card, to collect an ostrakon (pottery shard). He picked up the broken pottery and noticed a word on it. He tried to decipher the word but I told him that wasn't important and moved him on. Uh oh, he had an idea it was important.

Beta-This card explained the setting of the Agora and told him to collect an ostrakon because he *had* arrived!

Gamma-This card talked about the history of kings in Greece.  Then it said that he grew up with his mother telling him he was descended from one of these kings. Because he was so important, he could have another ostrakon. My husband cheerfully said that it is true, he is descended from a king. I told the kids, "I told you he'd say that." My husband always reminds me to treat him like royalty, so I knew this part would be a thrill for him.

Delta-This card talked about the history of the government moving from kingship to an oligarchy, led by the aristoracy. Since he was one of the aristocracy, he could collect another ostrakon.  My husband was feeling really good about being aristocracy, which I knew he would.  The plot was unfolding well. ;)

Epsilon-This card talked about Solon's reforms. The card said he was descended from Solon, so he could have another ostrakon. By the way, all these ostrakons have the same name scribbled on them. ;)

Zeta-This card talked about the first tyranos, which was a good thing.  Now my husband was really puzzled. We stood there explaining how wonderful the tyrannos was, at least the original one. We told him our ancestors needed this wonderful individual leadership to save Greece.  He was highly supported, even though he made all of the decisions.   When he died, his two sons assumed leadership one after the other, only for one to be murdered and the other ousted.  (Over time, because of the way democracy ended up, the meaning of tyrranos took on a negative connotation and denotation.)   Because my husband's family obviously survived these turbulent times, he could have another ostrakon. He was sort of scratching his head at this point. ;)

Eta-Then my husband got this card:
By 487BC, a law was passed specifying that archons were to be selected by lot, rather than election. Eventually selection by lot became the way of filling the other offices. This opened the door for the poor to become part of the democracy, reducing the power of the aristocracy.  Eventually the Council of the Areopagus becomes a law court for murder trials.  You are one of the aristocracy. Collect an ostrakon. 

Wait a minute, he questioned.  No more elections?  He looked concerned. "Oh", we assured him, "elections were a bad thing. The people did not have a say, because only the aristocracy was voted in to any of the offices. Now anyone can be in office. Well, not us women," I lamented, as I looked at my daughter. She agreed, we had no part in government. Nor did slaves or people who lived outside of Athens.  But my husband was in government with the poor people!  They were in government together! Something led my husband to ask how much education the poor people had.  "None," I cheerfully replied. "What do they need education for? They have opinions and that is what matters. Their opinion should count. This is a democracy, rule of the people, despite amount of money, despite level of education, despite social position. To be part of the democracy they have to be a male citizen of Athens and not a slave. That is all that matters.  Isn't that good? You said democracy was a good thing and that it is simply defined as "rule of the people."   Um, at this point he was guessing it was a good thing.  He was glad to collect another ostrakon, though.

Theta-This card explained that tax money now pays the officeholders, so that the poor have no closed doors to their being a part of the democracy.  Of course my husband was the aristocracy, so he could have an ostrakon.  My husband wasn't so sure.

Iota-This card said:
Because it’s too difficult  to prove before a court that a particular individual posed a threat to democracy, ostracism is instituted. Once a year a person who appears to be a threat can be banished from Athens for 10 years.  Collect an ostrakon.    

Now we explained ostracism to my husband. He understood what it meant but didn't realize this was common in Greek government. We assured him it was a good thing. "Isn't it a good thing to get rid of trouble makers?" He couldn't argue with that.  Well, he went looking for his ostrakon, but couldn't find any.  I exclaimed, "What? What do you need with more?  Look, he's hoarding all of these!"

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 My kids jumped into the foray and we gathered really close around my husband.  We started picking up the ostrakons from his hand and I cried, "Look!  They have writing on them! What do they say?" My son declared, "They all have  Kallixenos' name written on them!" I cried out, "He's trying to ostracize one of our good friends!  He's going to make people use these when they vote for the ostracism! I think you should all ostracize him!" My kids were all talking about the same thing at the same time and my husband said, "Why don't I know what is going on?"

I told my husband he was set up, just like he could have been in Greek democracy, if they were trying to get rid of him. "Ohhhh, I guess democracy isn't a good thing after all."  This is when we stepped out of character to explain it to him. That is why the Colonial Williamsburg Patrick Henry got all fired up when someone suggested that he was helping to form a democracy. In a nutshell, Patrick Henry angrily told us that democracy led to dictatorship.  Now things are clicking that we have a republic which is different from a democracy, but that's our next unit.

Then my son started his Alexander the Great presentation,

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 but he was stumbling over information (it was late) and my husband was literally cracking up (it was late).  My son gave up, so we decided to go up for baklava. My husband made a pot of coffee, so that gave time for everyone to settle down. I encouraged my son by saying that he could do an informal conversation with us, just like the interpreters do at the Colonial Williamsburg Tucker House.  When we finally sat down to dessert, my son was having a hard time starting things up, so I asked, "So Al, what's up?  Where are you at these days?"  My son laughed and eased into a presentation that amazed me.  His believable audacity shocked his father. Alexander the Great had been told by his mother that he had descended from a god. He was self-assured and invincible.  My son was highly believable. Both of my kids shared their informal presentations at the table and did a great job.

Friday, April 8, 2011

My son as Aide de Campe to General Andrew Jackson at Colonial Williamsburg

The entire reason for our trip down to Colonial Williamsburg was to beat the snowstorm in Northern Virginia and be in place for my son's acting opportunity.

And amazing that while surrounded historical interpreters these last few years, my son found much support for him as he tried out and obtained this role.
 
At long last Monday came and things were looking dry but it was extremely cold for standing around. However I couldn't miss out on the action of seeing an EFT shoot, with my son as Johnny, aide to General Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans! I looked and looked for my son and did not recognize him at all! But you can see him here...this link describes which photos he's in at the EFT Facebook page.) A lot of crowds gathered throughout the day to watch. I was surprised when one of the producers told us to come in and stand with them in the pasture behind the cameras and later another producer offered us chairs to sit. Despite 90% chance of snow/rain mix, the weather stayed dry.

In between takes, my daughter found herself answering questions about EFTs from the numerous guests who stopped by to watch. At 1:30 the shoot was done, the sun had popped out and it started to snow.  I swear I saw huge snow drops kerplunk on me before the snow flakes started wafting about...in the warm sunshine! What crazy weather! Now I was so warm I was ready to start shedding all the layers I had been wearing!


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Look at him! We saw the joiners making that very frame the day before! He must be taking it to the Armoury for a fitting.

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After more lulling, soothing playing of tunes, I was definitely woken up by an energetic horseman...none other than the Marquis de Lafayette!
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Then the lively dancing perked me up some more!
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I love all the horses in town!
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As we walked to the Martha Washington scene, I saw Alexander Purdie directing the foot traffic! When he saw my son he gave a great big smile, shook my son's hand, and congratulated him for being in the EFT shoot, etc, etc, etc. 

The herald arrived and instead of the usual quick announcement, he chatted a bit about Lady Washington's journey to town.
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Thursday, April 7, 2011

Lafayette and Napoleon-We Were Destined!

My son stumbled upon some interesting trivia yesterday related to our past.  When he and his sister were little, they had a favorite video,  "The Aristocats" which is set in Paris, France. Long story short, yesterday afternoon, my son told me that Napoleon and Lafayette were in "The Aristocats". They were?  My brain tried to recount all the scenes with those poor cats and the conniving butler.  Who in the world represented Napoleon and Lafayette?  I didn't think it was the kittens. My son said they were the dogs.  Dogs?  I was trying to remember where the dogs were in the movie. He said they were bad dogs. Oh, some memory is coming back.  Wait?  Lafayette was a mean dog?  Oh no! They got that all wrong! My son laughed and said that Napoleon was the ring leader and Lafayette just sort of followed along. Can you believe that? Lafayette had great support, chose positive causes and never followed Napoleon.  Anyway, I guess we were destined to become Lafayette   fans...and we are definitely warming up to Napoleon, whom I am learning wasn't quite the bad guy that previous books (and movies) have led me to believe.

Wednesday, April 6, 2011

Gunsmith and Foundry and a Bell

We got to the Gunsmith and Foundry in time for a pour!  For the longest time he was heating up the fire with the bellows in preparation to pour silver for a bell.
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Meanwhile we looked at some of the things he makes. Do you know what this is?
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It becomes part of the rifle...
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Do you know what this is?
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They are the hilt for a small sword...
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Spoons...
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Pistols...
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The pour! We were so excited...except that he poured it into the mold that was on the floor behind this white cloth covered structure.
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At least the glow of the clay/graphite container was quite impressive!

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